The Federal Information Security Modernization Act (FISMA) is a piece of law enacted in the United States that establishes a framework of rules and security standards to preserve federal information and procedures. This risk management framework was enacted as part of the Electronic Government Act of 2002, and it has since been revised and changed.
Since 2002, the scope of FISMA has been expanded to include state agencies that administer federal programs and private enterprises and service providers that have a contract with the United States government. Non-compliance may result in reduced federal funds or other consequences.
The Electronic Government Act was enacted to better the administration of electronic government services and procedures and control federal spending on data security. FISMA was one of the most important laws enacted as part of the Electronic Government Act because it established a mechanism for reducing government data security threats while prioritizing cost-effectiveness.
FISMA, in particular, mandates federal agencies and others to design, record, and implement agency-wide information security strategies. These programs should be capable of safeguarding confidential material. The legislation also delegated some tasks to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Agency officials should conduct annual assessments of an agency's information security program, such as chief information officers and inspector generals, and such reviews should be reported to OMB. The data will subsequently be used by OMB to help in its oversight obligations, as well as to send yearly reports to congress.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is in charge of generating information about standards and recommendations, such as special protection criteria.
Federal agencies must establish information security safeguards that are proportionate to the risk and extent of the harm caused by unauthorized access, use, disclosure, interruption, alteration, or destruction of:
Furthermore, government agencies must comply with the information security standards and recommendations and the necessary NIST requirements.
Federal agencies, subcontractors, or other sources offer data security for the agency's information and information systems that support the institution's activities and properties.
FISMA delegated authority to several entities to maintain data security in the federal government. The legislation mandates that program leaders, as well as the head of each agency, undertake yearly assessments of information security programs with the goal of maintaining risks at or below defined acceptable levels in a cost-effective, timely, and efficient way. The NIST lists several stages toward FISMA compliance:
Non-compliance with FISMA has the major consequence of losing government contracts or money, as well as congressional censure. However, in the middle of the digital era, non-compliance with FISMA might have a number of additional implications. One of these effects is harm to one's reputation. As consumers continue to demand greater transparency from the organizations and enterprises with whom they interact, cybersecurity failings can be linked to overall company failure.
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